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Server speed

An important feature of a server is the speed of its internet connection, or more precisely, its latency and bandwidth. How can we measure these quantities if all we have is command line access?

Regarding latency, look at my last post. Here's an example from with the fastest mirror:

± netselect -vv
Running netselect to choose 1 out of 1 address.
............ 2 ms   6 hops  100% ok (10/10) [    3]

If you want a closer look at the 6 hops, use mtr-tiny.

Concerning bandwidth, use speedtest-cli:

sudo wajig install speedtest-cli

Here's an example from

± speedtest
Retrieving configuration...
Testing from netcup GmbH (
Retrieving server list...
Selecting best server based on ping...
Hosted by IT Ohlendorf (Salzgitter) [111.93 km]: 11.215 ms
Testing download speed.................................................
Download: 427.58 Mbit/s
Testing upload speed...................................................
Upload: 393.16 Mbit/s

Hm. A ping of 2 ms and a symmetric down- and upload of 0.4 GB/s for a handful of € per month? Why can't I have that at home?

HTTPS mirrors

And while we're at it, let's also configure HTTPS mirrors for our package updates. That may seem superfluous at the first glance, as these packages are public content and are signed with the private GPG keys of the developers, certifying their authenticity. However, the signatures are only one part of the story, and the encrypted transfer is the other. In fact, updates installed via a plain-text HTTP connection can be intercepted by GPG replay attacks. A comprehensive analysis of this scenario was done a decade ago at the University of Arizona. The following brief summary is due to Joe Damato:

“Even with GPG signatures on both the packages and the repositories, repositories are still vulnerable to replay attacks; you should access your repositories over HTTPS if at all possible. The short explanation of one attack is that a malicious attacker can snapshot repository metadata and the associated GPG signature at a particular time and replay that metadata and signature to a client which requests it, preventing the client from seeing updated packages. Since the metadata is not touched, the GPG signature will be valid. The attacker can then use an exploit against a known bug in the software that was not updated to attack the machine.”

The distributions I'm currently using and am familiar with (Archlinux and Debian) do not use HTTPS mirrors by default, but can be coaxed into doing so.

That's particularly easy for Archlinux after installing reflector, a python script that allows to filter mirrors by various criteria such as their geographical location, up-to-dateness, download rate, and, last but not least, connection protocol. The following one-liner overwrites /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist with the current top-ten of all HTTPS mirrors in terms of up-to-dateness, overall score and speed:

reflector --verbose --protocol https --latest 100 --score 50 --fastest 10 --sort score --save /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

This command can be run manually, or automatically by either using a pacman hook to trigger it in the event of mirrorlist updates, or by a timed systemd service. Reflector is thus an as flexible as convenient tool for selecting the optimum mirrors.

I expected that Debian would offer something equivalent, but to my considerable surprise and disappointment, there's nothing coming even close. The netselect derivative netselect-apt is only capable of finding the ten fastest mirrors for the relevant release of Debian (i.e, stable, testing, or sid). But how do I know if these mirror support HTTPS? To the best of my knowledge, the only way short of trying them one-by-one is the python script available here (or one of its forks).

Armed with this script (I'm using the multithreaded variant), I usually just create a list with all mirrors, which I then pipe through netselect to find the fastest one:

± ./ --generic --no-err | awk '{print $1}' | grep https | tr '\n' ' ' | xargs netselect -vv

Oh, and one should not forget to install 'apt-transport-https' to allow apt to use HTTPS mirrors. Only true Debilians will find this situation tolerable.

Let's encrypt

Ever since I've set up the new server for this blog, I've wanted to make the switch from plain HTTP to TLS-encrypted HTTPS (if you think HTTPS is for online shops and banks only, think again).

This transition turned out to be much easier than I thought. Hiawatha, our web server of choice, comes with a script that takes care of registering the site at Let's Encrypt and requesting certificates for the associated domain(s). Chris Wadge, the maintainer of Hiawatha for Debian, provided an excellent tutorial guiding through the few steps necessary to configure Hiawatha for serving HTTPS content.

Since I had to configure vhosts for the certificates anyway, I took the opportunity to set up some proper subdomains. For example, this blog can now be reached at

After a bit of tweaking (setting HSTS to one year), the security rating of our site is flawless:


Intel microcode updates

Intel offers an updated microcode data file since 8th of January. According to Heise, these updates are exclusively devoted to Spectre and CPUs younger than 2013, Meltdown being taken care of by kernel updates, and older CPUs being (hopefully) the subject of subsequent microcode updates.

To examine and to eventually apply these updates, they have to be downloaded:


sudo pacman -S intel-ucode


sudo apt install intel-microcode

Debian automatically updates initrd, but for Arch, one has to update the bootlader as described in the wiki. Prior to doing so, one should check whether the updated microcode file actually holds updates for the CPU in use at all. In agreement with the report of Heise, there's no update for my Ivy Bridge Xeon:

➜  ~ bsdtar -Oxf /boot/intel-ucode.img | iucode_tool -tb -lS -
iucode_tool: system has processor(s) with signature 0x000306a9
microcode bundle 1: (stdin)
selected microcodes:
  001/138: sig 0x000306a9, pf_mask 0x12, 2015-02-26, rev 0x001c, size 12288

But the Haswell i7 at work is destined to receive one:

➤ bsdtar -Oxf /boot/intel-ucode.img | iucode_tool -tb -lS -
iucode_tool: system has processor(s) with signature 0x000306c3
microcode bundle 1: (stdin)
selected microcodes:
  001/147: sig 0x000306c3, pf_mask 0x32, 2017-11-20, rev 0x0023, size 23552

After a reboot, it is easy to ckeck whether an update of the microcode has taken place or not:

➜  ~ dmesg | grep microcode
[    0.000000] microcode: microcode updated early to revision 0x1c, date = 2015-02-26
[    0.652031] microcode: sig=0x306a9, pf=0x2, revision=0x1c
[    0.652284] microcode: Microcode Update Driver: v2.2.

Same as before.

➤ dmesg | grep microcode
[    0.000000] microcode: microcode updated early to revision 0x23, date = 2017-11-20
[    0.552077] microcode: sig=0x306c3, pf=0x2, revision=0x23
[    0.552404] microcode: Microcode Update Driver: v2.2.

Indeed, a new one!

And what does the update do? Am I now immune to both Meltdown and Spectre on the Haswell system?

According to the 'Spectre & Meltdown Checker', the update has actually very little effect. Here's the result on my Xeon:

$ ./
Spectre and Meltdown mitigation detection tool v0.29

Checking for vulnerabilities against running kernel Linux 4.14.13-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Wed Jan 10 11:14:50 UTC 2018 x86_64
CPU is Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E3-1240 V2 @ 3.40GHz

CVE-2017-5753 [bounds check bypass] aka 'Spectre Variant 1'
- Checking count of LFENCE opcodes in kernel:  NO
> STATUS:  VULNERABLE  (only 21 opcodes found, should be >= 70, heuristic to be improved when official patches become available)

CVE-2017-5715 [branch target injection] aka 'Spectre Variant 2'
- Mitigation 1
- Hardware (CPU microcode) support for mitigation:  NO
- Kernel support for IBRS:  NO
- IBRS enabled for Kernel space:  NO
- IBRS enabled for User space:  NO
- Mitigation 2
- Kernel compiled with retpoline option:  NO
- Kernel compiled with a retpoline-aware compiler:  NO
> STATUS:  VULNERABLE  (IBRS hardware + kernel support OR kernel with retpoline are needed to mitigate the vulnerability)

CVE-2017-5754 [rogue data cache load] aka 'Meltdown' aka 'Variant 3'
- Kernel supports Page Table Isolation (PTI):  YES
- PTI enabled and active:  YES
> STATUS:  NOT VULNERABLE  (PTI mitigates the vulnerability)

And here's the Haswell. Note Spectre 2.

$ ./
Spectre and Meltdown mitigation detection tool v0.29

Checking for vulnerabilities against running kernel Linux 4.14.13-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Wed Jan 10 11:14:50 UTC 2018 x86_64
CPU is Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4790 CPU @ 3.60GHz

CVE-2017-5753 [bounds check bypass] aka 'Spectre Variant 1'
- Checking count of LFENCE opcodes in kernel:  NO
> STATUS:  VULNERABLE  (only 21 opcodes found, should be >= 70, heuristic to be improved when official patches become available)

CVE-2017-5715 [branch target injection] aka 'Spectre Variant 2'
- Mitigation 1
- Hardware (CPU microcode) support for mitigation:  YES
- Kernel support for IBRS:  NO
- IBRS enabled for Kernel space:  NO
- IBRS enabled for User space:  NO
- Mitigation 2
- Kernel compiled with retpoline option:  NO
- Kernel compiled with a retpoline-aware compiler:  NO
> STATUS:  VULNERABLE  (IBRS hardware + kernel support OR kernel with retpoline are needed to mitigate the vulnerability)

CVE-2017-5754 [rogue data cache load] aka 'Meltdown' aka 'Variant 3'
- Kernel supports Page Table Isolation (PTI):  YES
- PTI enabled and active:  YES
> STATUS:  NOT VULNERABLE  (PTI mitigates the vulnerability)

Don't see the difference? Look again in 'Hardware (CPU microcode) support for mitigation'. That's all, yes. Kind of sobering, I agree. Please blame Intel, not me.

Update: After reading this article, I understand that the microcode update only prepares the ground for the actual patch, which will come with kernel 4.15 and later versions. I'll check again then, of course after updating the 'Spectre & Meltdown Checker' (simply pulling the lastest version via 'git pull origin master').

Meltdown patch available for Arch

If you haven't heard of Meltdown and Spectre, it's about time you do. Since yesterday, all newspapers and even TV provide extensive coverage on a recently discovered vulnerability of modern CPUs potentially resulting in a leak of sensitive data. While Meltdown seems to primarily affect all modern Intel CPUs, Spectre also applies to AMD and ARM chips. The scale of this vulnerability is not only unprecedented, it's historic.

The KPTI (formerly KAISER) patch developed by the University of Graz defeats Meltdown. The patch is part of the coming Linux kernel 4.15 and has already been backported to 4.14.11.

Which brings me to the good news for Archers like myself: Kernel 4.14.11 is available since yesterday, 8:13 CET. Spectacular work from upstream, but also from the Arch team! No new microcode, though – the currently available one is still from 17th of November.

CentOS just provided patches as well. There's nothing from Debian yet, however. :(

Oh, and I've just received a mail from the hoster of Good to see they react at once.

What a great start of 2018. Well, regardless, happy new year to all of you. ;)

Update: An in-depth analysis of the mechanisms resulting in meltdown and spectre can be found in an online article (in German) written by the legendary Andreas Stiller (who, most unfortunately, retired at the end of 2017).


My first Linux was Redhat 2.0, installed on a Pentium 90 from a CD attached to a magazine entitled “Linux: ein Profi-OS für den PC”, which I had purchased for 9,99 DM at Karstadt in December 1995. I was mesmerized: to run a Unix system on my PC not unlike the Solaris I've had before on a Sun workstation (which was entirely out of reach financially) was a revelation. Soon after, I acquired the “Kofler” (2nd edition) that included a CD with Redhat 3.0.3.

Why was I so interested in Linux? Of all operating systems I knew, Solaris was the only one I found to be a pleasure to work with. DOS was stable and reliable, but much too limited, and MacOS and Windows appeared to me as demonstrations of the various ways a computer can crash rather than operating systems.

I used MacOS 6 on a Macintosh II from 1992 to 1994 in Japan and learned to thoroughly despise this caricature of an operating system. I sometimes felt that I spent more time in looking at the bomb than doing anything useful. When Apple launched the switch campaign a decade later, the frequent crashes of MacOS and the bizarre error messages were already a legend.

I returned to Germany in 1994 and and had great hopes in Windows, from which I'd heard from a guy working for FutureWave Software, a company which developed the precursor of Shockwave Flash. Well ... the much touted Windows turned out to be DOS with an amateurishly designed GUI, which was prone to surreal crashes that occurred spontaneously, without any apparent reason.

Before one could enjoy these magic moments, one had to install the whole caboodle. And that meant, of course, to install first DOS 6.22 (which came in four 3³½ inch floppy disks) and then Windows 3.11 (eight 3³½ inch floppy disks). If you're too young to know what that means, listen to the sound of computing in the 1990s.

Redhat, in contrast, came on a CD, which in itself seemed to reflect the technological supremacy of this OS over its commercial cousin. This impression, however, turned out to be nothing but a delusion: the installation procedure could only be started from DOS! The installation itself required intimate knowledge of the hardware components of the computer and their IRQ numbers and IO addresses. Ironically, the easiest way to get this information was an installation of Windows on the same computer.

What made the installation even more difficult was my plan to realize a dual boot configuration—Windows for the games, Linux for LaTeX. In fact, the typesetting suite was one of the main reasons for my interest in Linux, because it was an integral part of the distribution at that time. I had just installed LaTeX on Windows on my computer at the office, and after an entire day and a seemingly endless sequence of floppy disks, I realized that I didn't want to do that again.

After struggling with a number of difficulties, I managed to set up my dual boot system. Encouraged by this success and the pleasant user experience, I installed a variety of distributions in the years to come, and found the installation to become easier and easier with every year. Installing Mandrake Leeloo in 1998 on a brand-new Pentium II 266 was way easier than installing Windows 98. In 2001, HAL was still science fiction, but we had computers every dumbo could handle.

At least that was my impression. Ubuntu, a Debian derivative, materialized in 2004 and was touted to be the first Linux distribution a normal user would be able to install and use. The Ubuntu hype is unbroken since, and in many mainstream media, Ubuntu has become synonymous to Linux. In recent years, Ubuntu has been superseded by Mint in terms of popularity. It seems that the masses always chose unwisely.

But what is a good choice? And how should a beginner chose from the 305 distributions listed on Distrowatch?

Well, let's start with the second question. The situation is actually much less confusing than it seems at first glance. As a matter of fact, we do not face 305, but just about a dozen of independent Linux distributions, and the rest are offsprings. Wikipedia has a comprehensive article about this subject, and the fantastically detailed timelines visualize the historical development most beautifully. The comparison of Linux distributions is another illuminating article.

For simplicity, let's project this development onto a one-dimensional time axis. These are the originals (together with popular derivatives):

Slackware (July 1993)
Porteus, SalixOS, Slax, Vector, Puppy, (SUSE)
Debian (September 1993)
Ubuntu, Mint, ElementaryOS, Grml, Knoppix, SteamOS, Damn Small, Puppy, ...
Redhat (October 1994)
CentOS, Mandrake/Mandriva/Mageia, Scientific, Fedora, Qubes
SUSE (May 1996)
Gentoo (July 2000)
Archlinux (March 2002)
ArchBang, Antergos, Chakra, Manjaro

Is that really all there is? Well, these are the big six. There are some notable newcomers:

CRUX (December 2002), Alpine (April 2006), Void (2008), and Solus (December 2015)

The first three are technically markedly different from the mainstream distributions, and are definitely not aimed at beginners. All right, all right...which one of the big six is aimed at beginners?

None, of course. What do you think? That back then anybody in his right mind developed primarily for noobs? Hell, the word was not even created yet, since the whole category of people who could be labeled as noobs did not exist. The world wide web, which would give birth to a generation that watches videos to learn how to boil eggs, had only been invented. Incredible as it sounds, there was no Google, no Youtube, no Twitter or Facebook. Watching a video with the bitrate of modems in 1993 (14.4 kb/s) would only have worked in ultraslow motion anyway (1 s stretched to 5 min). In any case, personal computers and their operating systems were perceived as a revolution in user friendliness compared to what had existed before, and people were willing to acquire the skills it took to operate them.

To develop Linux for noobs is a decidedly modern phenomenon, invented by a visionary southafrican billionaire in the hope to become the 21st century's Bill Gates. Indeed, Mark Shuttleworth was the first person who tried to market Linux. He did that in a remarkably effective way by appealing to first world people's natural sentimentality: “Ubuntu is an ancient African word meaning ‘humanity to others’.” Hardened Linux veterans like me reacted to this campaign in a rather unfavorable way, I'm afraid:

Ubuntu is an ancient African word meaning 'I can't configure Debian'.

And now to the first question: what is a good choice? As I've stated in a previous post, I generally do not like to make recommendations – people's qualifications, needs, and preferences are just too diverse. However, I can tell you what criteria are important for me and what I have consequently chosen to work with.

  1. I'm not willing to make any compromise regarding security. The distribution I use must have a dedicated security team and a dedicated security advisory system. That excludes the majority of pet project and show-case distributions derived from one of the big six.
  2. Many thousands of useful programs exist in the open-source world. I want as many of them as possible to be easily accessible in central repositories managed by the distribution. A clearly defined core subset should be officially supported. Situations as in Ubuntu (and derivatives), where no one knows a priori what's supported and what not, are unacceptable.
  3. New software versions should be available days after they are provided upstream, not months or years. I do not have the patience for waiting for bugfixes for several months because of six-month release cycles or similar nonsense. That leaves only rolling-release distributions such as, most prominently, Arch, Gentoo, Debian Testing and Debian Sid, Fedora Rawhide, and openSUSE Tumbleweed.
  4. Last but not least: I want to invest as little time and effort with my computer installations as possible. They should run smoothly and function as expected.

I've thus almost inevitably arrived at the following constellation:

Desktop Home: Arch
Desktop Office: Arch
Notebook: Arch
Netbook: Debian Sid
Server: Debian Testing
Compute Servers: Debian Testing, CentOS [1]

In addition to all these physical systems, I also have various installations of Debian Testing, Debian Sid, Arch, and CentOS as virtual machines. Oh, and, before I forget: there's also a lonely Windows 7, that is about as troublesome as all of the above together. No, I'm not kidding. Just the regular monthly update takes an hour.

In any case, those are the distributions I'm using. What can you learn from that, if you are a noob? Just a few basic things, perhaps. First of all, it's good to know what you really want. And then, it's good to act correspondingly, no matter of your level of noobishness. ;)

[1] The CentOS compute server is administered now by Jonas (thx a bunch!), which is not to be understood as a statement against CentOS. On the contrary, I think that CentOS is an extremely capable and convenient server (!) OS.

Quality journalism

c't 25/2017. A test of the new iPhone X entitled Für die nächsten 10 Jahre. In the conclusion on page 55:

Nur das iPhone X zeigt, wie ein aktuelles Smartphone aussehen sollte. [...] Face ID ist ein Alleinstellungsmerkmal gegenüber allen anderen und man möchte es nach kürzester Zeit nicht mehr missen.

Same issue on page 60: A test of the new OnePlus 5T entitled Hohe Schlagzahl.

Zusätzlich baut OnePlus eine Gesichtserkennung ein. Die arbeitet in unter einer halben Sekunde, ließ sich nicht von Fotos überlisten und nicht von Brillen oder Mützen verwirren.

It is well known that a significant percentage of the population and apparently 100% of all journalists suffer from a catastrophic failure of higher cerebral functions when being confronted with products from Apple. But what's the reason for this distressing loss of self-control? Well, if you look into my previous post on a recension of the iPad by Spiegel Online, it is clear that this loss closely resembles the one seen in sexually overloaded situations such as mating rituals and reproductive scenarios, during which the male brain is fully occupied in sending messages to the pituitary gland triggering production of testosterone (which, incidentally, is also responsible for making the individual drool).

The inevitable conclusion of these observations is that Apple coats their products with certain pheromones acting as a highly effective sexual stimulus. Since the next Apple store is just a 10 min walk, I shall test this hypothesis myself. Should I develop the madness described above, please shoot me on sight.

Xpdf (4!)

Desktop publishing (DTP) was initiated by two ground-breaking developments of Adobe. They first established postscript in 1984, which, after being quickly adapted by Apple in 1985 in their first laser printer, became the de-facto standard in the DTP world for a long time to come. Second, they developed the portable document standard (pdf) in 1993, which is now not only dominating DTP, but also all electronic publishing activities.

I don't remember when pdf became relevant for me. For publishing, most journals still prefer figures in eps format, although some accept pdf as well. I also don't remember whether Xpdf or gv was serving as my pdf reader in the 1990s. In any case, Xpdf was (as far as I know) the first dedicated pdf reader for Linux, and came with a Motif interface popular at that time (after all, the popular Unix desktop CDE used Motif!). This archaic interface didn't change since 1995, and is certainly one of the main reasons why nobody uses Xpdf any more.

Well, I do, but only for a single purpose: I use Xpdf to extract vector graphics from pdf files. A few days ago, I planned to do exactly that, opened the paper with Xpdf and ... but wait a second, that's not Xpdf!


And yet, the window title says Xpdf. What's going on?


A new logo, and a new toolkit. If I would have been asked, I would have bet anything on this not going to happen, ever. Fortunately, nobody has asked...

In any case, it's nice. But does my script work? Of course not. At least nothing happens when I hit Ctrl-e. Starting Xpdf from a terminal shows that the script is started all right, but the filename is put in additional quotation marks. Ha, that's easy: in ~/.xpdfrc, the line

bind ctrl-e any "run(pdfsnap '%f' %p %x %y %X %Y)"

just has to read

bind ctrl-e any "run(pdfsnap %f %p %x %y %X %Y)"

and it works!

By the way: this update is illustrating the difference between Archlinux and Debian Sid very nicely. For both systems, the update came almost at the same day, but had different content: 4.00 for Arch and 3.04-4+b1 for Debian. Sid is not vicious, but a snail. ;)


The file /etc/motd contains the message displayed by the server when an ssh connection is established. For a default Debian system, this message reads:

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/``*``/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.

Bla blup, gna gna gna gna. Nothing is more dreadful and dull than legal disclaimers.

As an alibi, Debian adds a script in /etc/update-motd.d that executes the command

uname -snrvm,

resulting on in

Linux v22016124074441159 4.12.0-1-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.12.6-1 (2017-08-12) x86_64

which is almost as boring as the legal blah-blah above. I don't need to be reminded that I'm using Linux, nor that it's the 64 bit variant (and that even twice). The hostname isn't hot news either, and it would certainly suffice to show the kernel version only once.

Imagine instead a dynamic message, one that truly constitutes a message of the day (MOTD). I'd like to see, for example, the current system load at login, and information concerning the systems available ressources.

Searching the interwebs for that, I first found lots of outdated and contradictory information, but finally this very useful guide for current Debian versions. In essence, one can put arbitrary scripts in /etc/update-motd.d. Instead of writing these scripts myself, I've used the ones of Nick Charlton that seem very close to what I wanted.

Because of the update query, these scripts delay ssh login by about 0.7 s. Let's see what my fellow PdeS will say about that. duck

Update 21.8.17: I totally forgot the obligatory “screenshot”:

[cobra:~] $ ssh pdes

           _                            _
 _ __   __| | ___  ___       _ __   ___| |_   ___  _ __ __ _
| '_ \ / _` |/ _ \/ __|_____| '_ \ / _ \ __| / _ \| '__/ _` |
| |_) | (_| |  __/\__ \_____| | | |  __/ |_ | (_) | | | (_| |
| .__/ \__,_|\___||___/     |_| |_|\___|\__(_)___/|_|  \__, |
|_|                                                    |___/

Welcome to Debian GNU/Linux testing (buster) (4.12.0-1-amd64).

System information as of: Mon Aug 21 19:35:08 CEST 2017

System load:    0.00    Memory usage:   1.6%
Usage on /:     1%      Swap usage:     0.0%
Local users:    3

0 updates to install.
0 are security updates.

You have new mail.
Last login: Sun Aug 20 11:14:11 2017 from

Update 26.8.17: Nick's elaborate python script for detecting updatable packages doesn't work here. I've replaced it with a simple bash one-liner:


number=$(aptitude search '~U' | wc -l)
%number=$(wajig toupgrade | tail -n +3 | wc -l) %alternative command using wajig

echo -e "$number updates to install.\n"

DNS privacy

In my last post, I've focused on the immediately obvious merits of a local DNS resolver. I didn't comment on an issue that I find at least as important: privacy, or rather, the lack thereof in the DNS system. Read Geoff Huston's excellent post for an overview.

One of the main reasons why I've chosen Unbound as my local DNS resolver is that it was designed with privacy in mind. In particular, it supports QNAME minimization and DNS over TLS. The latter is only one of the various possible approaches that are currently under discussion for the realization of an encrypted DNS system. However, it is among the few that already work: there are a number of test servers in essentially continuous operation. I've used it for a couple of weeks and did not experience any interruption of service.

To test whether a server really offers DNS over TLS, use pydig:

pydig @ +dnssec +tls=auth


pydig @ +dnssec +tls=auth

In order to use DNS over TLS in Unbound, we only need minimal modifications of the configuration files I've posted previously. First of all, we of course need to define authoritative servers supporting DNS over TLS. Second, encryption has to be enabled.


forward-addr:         # over TLS
forward-addr:          # over TLS
forward-first: no
forward-ssl-upstream: yes


ssl-upstream: yes

After restarting the resolver with

systemctl restart unbound.service

all of your DNS requests are encrypted over TLS. :)

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